Cherry Growers of Australia represent the biosecurity interests of cherry growers and the industry.
In 2013–14, cherry production was valued at $127 million (LVP). The main varieties grown are Lapin, Sweetheart, Sweet Georgia, Merchant, Stella, Bing, Van, Simone, Regina, Samba and Stacarto.
The Australian cherry industry is concentrated in the following regions: 800 hectares in NSW (Hillston/Narromine, Orange and Young, and Batlow/Tumut); 800 hectares in Victoria (Swan Hill/Sunraysia, Goulburn Valley, north-eastern Victoria, Yarra Valley/Dandenongs); 600 hectares in Tasmania (Huon Valley/Channel, Derwent Valley, Coal Valley, Tamar Valley and north-western Tasmania); 500 hectares in SA (Adelaide Hills, Riverland and south east SA); 70 hectares in WA (Perth Hills, Donnybrook/Manjimup and Mt Barker); and 25 hectares in Queensland (Stanthorpe/Granite Belt).
About 10,000 tonnes of cherries are consumed domestically and another 6,000 tonnes exported at a value of $73 million. Exports are currently shipped to 30 countries, with the top six destinations being Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Singapore, Korea and the Middle East.
Cherry (Prunus avium) flowers have a single pistil surrounded by about 30 stamen and five petals. The ovary contains two ovules. Flowers that are not pollinated soon fall off the tree.
Although the flowers may stay open for up to 5 days, the stigma receptivity of some flowers begins to decline as the flower opens. It has been reported that the earliest flowers that open will produce the highest quality fruit. Most cherry cultivars are self-incompatible. Pollination occurs by insects, with honey bees the most important.
A study in Victoria demonstrated the importance of honey bees as the primary agent for pollinating cherries. Trees caged from bees had a 2 per cent fruit set, as compared to uncaged trees exposed to the activities of honey bees which had a 35.9 per cent fruit set. The yields were 1.9kg/tree for the caged trees and 35.2kg/tree for the uncaged trees. It was also observed that 97 per cent of the insects that visited the cherry flowers were honey bees.
Honey bees find cherry flower very attractive because they are able to collect both nectar and pollen. Pollen foragers are likely to be the better foragers as they usually have more pollen on their bodies. They normally enter cherry flowers by climbing though the anthers and so even nectar gatherers have good stigma contact. Whether the extra pollen carried will increase pollination significantly is unknown.
Feeding sugar syrup to colonies has been shown to increase cherry pollen collection and may increase pollination, as it should increase the total number of bees visiting the crop, as it does for other crops such as kiwifruit. Although 2–3 hives per ha are usually used for cherry pollination, it is recommended that up to 10 honey bee colonies per hectare be introduced for effective pollination.
Additional fact sheets and web links about the pollination of this crop are listed below. Please be aware that some of the information was developed overseas, and environmental and seasonal variations may occur.
Cherry pollination fact sheet, The Pollination Program (Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation and Horticulture Australia Limited)
Honey bees in cherry and plum pollination, NSW Department of Primary Industries
Australian cherry production guide, Cherry Growers Australia
Sweet cherry pollination, CANOPLIN, Canadian Pollination Initiative, University of Guelph, Canada
Sour cherry pollination, CANOPLIN, Canadian Pollination Initiative, University of Guelph, Canada
Cherry pollination, Michigan State University
Honey bee pollination of fruit tree crops, Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries
Pollination of fruits and nuts, Purdue University, Indiana
|Annual value of cherry production 2007–14 (LVP)|
|Distribution of cherry production by state and territory 2013–14 (based on LVP)|
The pollination information is an excerpt from Mark Goodwin (2012) Pollination of Crops in Australia and New Zealand. RIRDC Publication No. 12/059
The industry overview and graphs on the value of production and crop distribution are from the 2013 National Plant Biosecurity Status Report (2014), Plant Health Australia, Canberra